Oscar de la Renta, 1932?2014

value= Oscar de la Renta was not a menswear designer. Although he was a pop icon, & he may have already been the greatest American couturier of all time. He was born in the Dominican Republic to a Puerto Rican father plus a Spanish mother. The 2nd that Jackie Kennedy embraced his designs, he became a part of American pop culture, & his incredible work and continuing relationship with every First Lady since cemented his status in the United States.             Oscar de la Renta, 1987/Getty.     He also dressed a slew of stars, which includes everyone from Oprah Winfrey to Anne Hathaway, & most recently George Clooney’s bride, Amal Alamuddin. Before all of that, though, he learned his craft in Europe’s legendary couture houses, such as apprenticeships with Cristobal Balenciaga and Antonio del Castillo at Lanvin in Paris.             Jacqueline Kennedy wearing Oscar de la Renta, 1962/Getty.     Although de la Renta did not truly make his name until he moved to New York to work with Elizabeth Arden, later launching his own line of ready-to-wear clothes in the city that became his home. He also famously developed Balmain’s haute couture collections from 1993 to 2002. De la Renta’s greatest contribution to male fashion happened when he volunteered two years of his life to redesigning the official Boy Scouts of America uniform, a style scouts wore from 1982-2008.             Oscar de la Renta and Jerry Hall join boy scouts wearing their new de la Renta uniforms, 1982, /Getty.     Via it all, and potentially most importantly, de la Renta remained an exemplary gentleman. While publically he often appeared impeccably dressed in fine suits, privately he adopted a boy from the Dominican Republic named Moises, acts that showed that the rarest of luxury can—and should—coexist with a generous heart.             Dancing all night, 1990, /Getty.     SyndContentImpl.interface=interface com.sun.syndication.feed.synd.SyndContent SyndContentImpl.type=text/html SyndContentImpl

Adobe’s symbolic pro-Gamergate gesture angers victims

value= Software company Adobe has implicitly voiced support for vitriolic “consumer revolt” Gamergate. After being asked by Gamergate supporters to drop sponsorship for Gawker Media, the company said that it was not in simple terms an advertiser, though would ask Gawker to remove an Adobe logo from its site. Gamergate supporters were protesting a series of tongue-in-cheek tweets by Gawker-affiliated Valleywag editor Sam Biddle, jokingly calling to “bring back bullying” of nerds. “Adobe stands against bullying,” the company tweeted, adding a link to the Adobe-sponsored Bully Project Mural. Over the past a variety of weeks, Gamergate has known as for a boycott of many gaming & technology publications, including this site and Gawker sister site Kotaku. Early on, it argued that sites had insulted their reader base by publishing articles that proposed the conventional gaming audience was misogynist or obsolete. Over the past couple of days, though, it’s targeted Gawker Media specifically. Biddle apologized for his remarks last week, saying that “I tweeted a number of items about ‘nerds’ that were supposed to be funny, however ended up hurting loads of ppl,” He later wrote a post about his interactions with the “D-list right-wingers” of Gamergate, including one of his primary critics, who had previously told people upset about games media to “put down the fucking video games and cease reading retarded sites.” The Washington Post reports that Mercedes-Benz also pulled sponsorship from Gawker briefly last week after complaints over Biddle’s remarks, “while [it] assessed a situation.” The ads were later reinstated; Mercedes-Benz has not responded to a number of requests for comment. In early October, Intel pulled marketing and advertising from gaming trade publication Gamasutra in response to an write-up by journalist Leigh Alexander that criticized mainstream gaming culture. Intel apologized not long after, saying it “does not assistance any organisation or movement that discriminates against women,” nevertheless mentioned it was not reinstating its ads. Adobe’s choice does not turn up to pose any financial threat to Gawker, & it was just about without doubt written to be as inoffensive as achievable, although minus more context, it does effectively throw the company’s lot in with Gamergate. Adobe has not responded to requests for comment. Gamergate, which began with an angry blog post from the ex-boyfriend of lo-fi game developer Zoe Quinn, is run below the banner of further ethical standards for journalism. Members have complained about “individual or monetary ties” between writers and developers in the reasonably insignificant indie games community, such as writers’ contributions to crowdfunding campaigns. There have actually been occasional assertions that these ties constitute criminal offenses, and that the existence of a mailing list for games journalists constituted “collusion” to push political messages in coverage. However Gamergate’s most prominent complaints to advertisers involve the influence of “social justice warriors” and feminists who factor progressive politics into article coverage &, by extension, silence “politically incorrect” debate. Dependant upon public statements and template letters, companies are urged to pull sponsorship partly thanks to broadly defined unethical journalism, although also for the reason that sites have published editorials that supporters of Gamergate find offensive. Competitors of Gamergate have pushed back at Adobe’s statement. “I was chased out of my home by the people you’re supporting,” said game developer Brianna Wu, who received violent and apparently Gamergate-associated death threats after mocking the movement. “I would appreciate a call.” While parts of Gamergate have denounced any attacks & insist that its supporters have also received threats, Wu is the third woman in gaming to be driven out of her property by people who, though a few don’t profess to be part of Gamergate, share parts of a well-liked ideological cause with the movement. Games critic Anita Sarkeesian, i.e., recently canceled a Utah State University visit since the college received a (non-Gamergate-associated) threat to “massacre” feminists in a bombing & shooting. It’s not clear whether Adobe critically knows something about Gamergate, however its glib PR has proved more controversial than it most likely intended. SyndContentImpl.interface=interface com.sun.syndication.feed.synd.SyndContent SyndContentImpl.type=text/html SyndContentImpl

How black holes stop galaxies from making stars

value= This image shows elliptical galaxy NGC 1132, as noticed by NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The blue/purple in the image is the X-ray glow from hot, diffuse gas that is not forming into stars. (Credit: NASA, ESA, M. West [ESO, Chile], & CXC/Penn State College/G. Garmire, et al.) Johns Hopkins University rightOriginal Study Posted by Dennis O’Shea-JHU on October 21, 2014 New evidence could help clarify how some massive black holes shut down a galaxy’s capacity to make new stars. Astronomers say jets of “radio-frequency feedback” streaming from mature galaxies’ central black holes are the “off switch,” stopping hot zero cost gas from cooling and collapsing into baby stars. “Basically, these active black holes give a reason for why stars cease forming in the universe.” “When you look into the past history of the universe, you see these galaxies building stars,” says Tobias Marriage, assistant professor of physics & astronomy at Johns Hopkins University. “At a few point, they stop forming stars plus the question is: why? Basically, these active black holes give a reason for why stars stop forming in the universe.” Published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, the findings were made feasible by adapting a popular study strategy to solve a new problem. The Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect signature—typically used to study considerable galaxy clusters—can also be used to learn a great deal about smaller formations, says postdoctoral fellow Megan Gralla. The SZ effect occurs when high-energy electrons in hot gas interact with faint light in the cosmic microwave background, light left over from earliest times when the universe was a thousand times hotter and a billion occasions denser than today. Cool and condense “The SZ is commonly used to study clusters of hundreds of galaxies but the galaxies we are on the lookout for are much smaller and have just a companion or 2,” Gralla says. “What we are doing is asking a different question than what has been previously asked. We are utilizing a tactic that is been around for a lot of time and that researchers have been incredibly profitable with, & we are employing it to answer a certainly unique question in a most certainly different subfield of astronomy,” Gralla says. “I was stunned when I saw this paper, because I’ve never thought that detecting the SZ effect from active galactic nuclei was probable,” says Eiichiro Komatsu, director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany who was not involved in the study. “I was incorrect. . . . It makes those of us who work on the SZ impact from galaxy clusters feel old; study on the SZ impact has entered a brand new era.” In space, hot gas drawn into a galaxy can cool and condense, forming stars. A lot of gas also funnels down into the galaxy’s black hole, which grows in conjunction with the stellar population. This cycle can repeat relentlessly; more gas is pulled in to cool and condense, more stars commence to shine and the central black hole grows more enormous. No new stars But in nearly all mature galaxies—the substantial galaxies named “elliptical” because of their shape—that gas doesn’t cool any more. “If gas is kept hot, it cannot collapse,” Marriage says. When that occurs: no new stars. Researchers identified that the elliptical galaxies with radio-frequency feedback—relativistic radio-frequency-emitting particles shooting from the immense central black holes at their center at close to the speed of light—all contain hot gas plus a dearth of infant stars. That delivers important new evidence for their hypothesis that radio-frequency feedback cuts off star-making in mature galaxies. It is nonetheless not known, nonetheless, just why black holes in mature elliptical galaxies commence to emit radio-frequency feedback.  “The exact mechanism behind this isn’t fully understood and there are nonetheless debates,” Marriage says. The new study, combined with others detecting SZ signals from more ordinary galaxies, “pose new challenges to the theory of galaxy formation, as there were hardly any data which told us how much hot gas there is around galaxies,” Komatsu says. The researchers used data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, a 6-meter telescope in northern Chile; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Exceptionally Big Array in New Mexico & its Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia; the Parkes Observatory in Australia; and the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory. The National Science Foundation funded the study. Source: Johns Hopkins University You are zero cost to share this document under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported license. SyndContentImpl.interface=interface com.sun.syndication.feed.synd.SyndContent SyndContentImpl.type=text/html SyndContentImpl

Australian volcanic mystery explained

The research explains a volcanic region that has seen more than 400 volcanic events in the last four million years. The 500 kilometre long region stretches from Melbourne to the South Australian town of Mount Gambier, which surrounds a dormant volcano that last erupted only five,000 years ago. “Volcanoes in this region of Australia are generated by a very distinct process to most of Earth’s volcanoes, which occur on the edges of tectonic plates, such as the Pacific Rim of Fire,” says lead researcher Dr Rhodri Davies, from the Research School of Earth Sciences. “We have determined that the volcanism arises from a exclusive interaction between neighborhood variations in the continent’s thickness, which we were able to map for the first time, & its movement, at seven centimetres a year northwards towards New Guinea and Indonesia. The volcanic area is comparatively shallow, less than 200 kilometres deep, in an region where a 2.5 billion year-old part of the continent meets a thinner, younger section, formed in the past 500 million years or so. These variations in thickness drive currents inside the underlying mantle, which draw heat from deeper up to the surface. The researchers used cutting-edge methods to model these currents on the NCI Supercomputer, Raijin, employing more than one million CPU hours. “This boundary runs the length of eastern Australia, however our computer model demonstrates, for the first time, how Australia’s northward drift outcomes in an isolated hotspot in this region,” Dr Davies mentioned. Dr Davies will now apply his investigation approach to other volcanic mysteries around the globe. “There are around 50 other similarly isolated volcanic regions around the world, quite a few of which we might now be able to explain,” he stated. It is troublesome to predict where or when future eruptions could happen, Dr Davies stated. “There hasn’t been an eruption in 5,000 years, so there is no need to panic. Although, the region is nonetheless active & we can not rule out any eruptions in the future.” The research is published in the Journal Geology

New mobile apps for Docs, Sheets and Slides—work offline and on the go

And while the Drive app is a convenient place to retail shop your stuff, we want to make it easier for you to rapidly find, edit & make documents, spreadsheets, and presentations on the go. Beginning today, you can download new, standalone mobile apps for Docs & Sheets—with Slides coming soon. Want to find a spreadsheet? Go to the Sheets app. Need to create a feature? Go to the Docs app. They’re all right there at your fingertips. When you open the new apps, you’ll see your most recently edited files, which implies less time looking and scrolling. The apps also come with offline assistance built in, so you could readily view, edit & develop files without an World wide web connection. Now, if you have a brilliant notion for a greatest-selling novel while traipsing by means of the Amazonian rainforest (or you realize, something more probable, like during flight takeoff)…no dilemma. You could jot down your idea in the Docs app on your telephone, even when you are offline. You could get the apps on Google Play [Docs] [Sheets] and in the App Store [Docs] [Sheets]. In case you do not have time now, over the subsequent few days you’ll be prompted to download the apps when you go to edit or develop a document or spreadsheet inside your Drive app

The fault in our czars

.. just to make certain that we’re crossing all of the t’s and dotting all the i’s going forward.” By Friday morning, the media had dubbed Ron Klain, Obama’s selected appointee, the Ebola Czar. In the beginning blush an Ebola Czar, or any czar genuinely, invokes an image of a cruel & omnipotent character parading around in heavy velvet robes, and carrying a jeweled scepter. Not an evident choice for someone to manage a national healthcare crisis. Nevertheless take a look below that robe & you will find that “‘czar” — at least in the context of American politics — is a relatively meaningless term, largely crafted by the media as handy shorthand for lengthy, cumbersome titles. It is a blustery euphemism meant to inspire confidence when in point of fact, these czars are minimal more than run-of-the-mill government appointees, generally faced with the same problems to solve as less imperious workers. Just like other personnel, czars are eventually replaced, retire, or their positions are scrapped. Today’s Ebola czar joins a long & storied rank of czars who’ve reigned over political kingdoms large, insignificant, and on occasion, bizarre. So we thought we’d pull together a sample platter of our preferred presidentially-appointed government czars. It will, I’m certain, leave you czar struck. Manpower Czar – Appointed in 1942 by Franklin Roosevelt Rubber Czar – Appointed in 1942 by Franklin Roosevelt Shipping Czar – Appointed in 1942 by Franklin Roosevelt Cleanup Czar – Appointed in 1952 by Harry Truman Missile Czar – Appointed in 1957 by Dwight D. Eisenhower Savings and Loan Czar – Appointed in 1990 by George H. W. Bush Border Czar – Appointed in 1995 by Bill Clinton E-commerce Czar – Appointed by Al Gore in 1998 Bioethics Czar – Appointed in 2001 by George W. Bush Reading Czar – Appointed in 2001 by George W. Bush Cyber Security Czar – Appointed in 2001 by George W. Bush Science Czar – Appointed in 2001 by George W. Bush Bird Flu Czar – Appointed in 2004 by George W. Bush Democracy Czar – Appointed in 2005 by George W. Bush Birth Control Czar – Appointed in 2006 by George W

OMG! Mobile voice survey reveals teens love to talk

Then again how, why and where do men and women use voice search? To find out, we commissioned a study, conducted by Northstar Investigation, surveying 1,400 Americans across all age groups. Here are the outcomes: We weren’t surprised to find that teens—always ahead of the curve when it comes to new technology—talk to their phones more than the average adult. More than half of teens (13-18) use voice search daily—to them it is as natural as checking social media or taking selfies. Grown-ups are also getting the hang of it, with 41 % talking to their phones every day and 56 percent admitting it makes them “feel tech savvy.” Each teens & grown-ups are asking their phones for directions and using it to help skip the hassle of typing in phone numbers. And it is pretty clear a lot of people are relying on voice check out multitasking: they talk to their phones while watching Tv (38 percent) & 23 % of grown-ups use voice search while cooking. Apparently, it’s becoming standard kitchen etiquette to ask your mobile device: “Ok Google, how quite a few ounces are in a gallon?”—all while making confident your display stays crumb-gratis. While folks of all ages ask practical questions, it is teens who are exploring all angles, with nearly 1-third talking to their phones to get help with homework. I see my young people asking my telephone questions like: “Ok Google, who was the sixth president of the U.S.?” or “what’s the tallest mountain in Europe?” On the bright side, teens are ditching voice search in the classroom: 74 % of them think using voice search at school is unacceptable. In truth, most admit to making use of voice search “just for fun”—I know my daughter finds it pretty amusing to tell her phone: “Ok Google, play Olivia Holt’s ‘Fearless'” to start a dance party. And teens don’t seem to associate any stigma with working with voice search while hanging out with buddies, whereas only 1-quarter of grown-ups speak to their phones when in the company of others. Teens do not mind talking to devices in private as well, with more than one in five admitting to making use of voice search while in the bathroom! Potentially they’re merely setting reminders like “Ok Google, remind mom to order toilet paper subsequent time we’re at Safeway.” However it’s already helping a lot of individuals save time & simplify their days, there is also potential for voice search to do a lot more in the future. So we asked folks what they wished voice search could one day deliver. & I are compelled to say, I agree with the outcomes! it would be amazing to rely on my voice to readily find my car keys or Tv remote, both of which somehow more often than not end up below the couch cushions. & I’m not alone in wishing a straightforward voice command might save me from having to cook dinner. Forty-five % of teens—and 36 % of grown-ups!—wish they could place a pizza delivery order using voice search on their mobile device. We’re not quite there yet, but subsequent time you do not feel like cooking, just pull out your phone, tap the Google app, and say: “Ok Google, call Round Table Pizza.” You will still need to place your order over the phone, however we’re getting closer! The modest print: The study was commissioned by Google & executed by Northstar Study, a global consulting firm. It examined the smartphone voice search habits of 1,400 Americans, 13 years of age and older (400 ages 13-17 & 1,000 adults ages 18+)

11 TechCrunch Stories You Don’t Want To Miss This Week

one. Edward Snowden conducted a remote interview as part of the New Yorker Festival, where he was asked a couple of variants on the question of what we can do to defend our privacy. He explained that furthermore to seeking out encryption tools, people who care about their privacy need to remain away from well known consumer World-wide-web services like Dropbox, Facebook, and Google. Coincidently, a variety of days after this speech Dropbox was once more in the headlines for a security associated concern. However several Dropbox accounts were compromised, its servers were not hacked. Dropbox has pushed the blame to users for making weak passwords. Online security is a hot subject, and I’m confident we’ll continue to see more products & services emerge to address our day-to-day privacy concerns. two. Facebook & Apple each have instated policies by way of which they’ll cover the costs for girls to freeze their eggs. Several view this notion as a positive step toward closing the gender gap, while others think this to be yet another approach to urge staff to put the workplace before family. 3. The stock sector has been going bonkers, and tech stocks are showing weakness amid an uncertain global economy. Last Friday was a massacre. Everything from Microsoft to GoPro got crushed. On the earnings front, Netflix missed expectations and Google reported less-than-awesome outcomes. Google & Microsoft are currently locked in a dogfight to be the 2nd-most beneficial technology company in the world. 4. Jillian Kay Melchior wrote an piece of content about how ISIS used social media and the internet to control the narrative of the conflict in Iraq & Syria. She expands upon the concept that real journalism is hazardous, however critical. 5. Apple held an event at the Cupertino HQ to introduce the new Yosemite OS X, iPad Air 2, iPad mini three, & iMac with Retina display. We got a first look at these new goods, and you could find our full coverage on the live blog. After the event, Apple announced a SIM card that lets you switch between carriers. Sarah Perez also wrote a piece explaining that the choices for shopping for an iPad just became dizzying. 6. Reddit acquired its most widely accepted unofficial iOS reader Alien Blue. So far, we know that this acquisition indicates a new logo, and they are simplifying the pricing. seven. Ron Miller spotlighted 2 successful startups based in Boston, Wayfair & HubSpot, reminding us that there are quite a few cities that have their own startup scenes complete with incubators, funders, startup spaces and lots of institutions vying for fame & fortune. 8. Will.i.am (Black Eyed Peas) unveiled the PULS, a brand new wearable that may call & text without a telephone. Will.i.am’s new wearable technology company i.am+ will also carry a jacket that powers the PULS, a backpack with a sound procedure, glasses that will take pictures by tapping on the PULS, & shoes that tell you how much you weigh & how lots of steps you have made per day. 9. Gartner published figures that underscore the challenge attracted to tablet devices against the ineluctable rise of the less costly, & ultimately more effortlessly replaceable, smartphone. The winner in the consumer electronics race continues to be smartphones, & Android smartphones dominate. This will need to be exceptional news for Google’s newly announced Nexus 6 phablet and Samsung’s Galaxy Note four. 10. HBO is launching a stand-alone streaming service next year. HBO is a nominal late to the game, and there are still plenty of questions about the particulars at this point. 11. Google Shopping Express has rebranded to Google Express, and it is expanding to more cities. There is a battle brewing between Amazon Prime and Google Express. TechCrunch Disrupt Europe: London kicks off today with the Hackathon. We’ll have the primary event streaming on our site on Monday and Tuesday, or you can follow along on Twitter (#TCDisrupt)

C# Attributes in 5 minutes

This data might be attached to your method, class, namespace, assembly etc. Attributes are part of your code this makes developers life less complicated as he can see the facts right upfront in the code while he is calling the technique or accessing the class & take actions accordingly. For example beneath is a simple class where “Method1″ is decorated by the “Obsolete” attribute. Attributes are defined by employing the “[]” symbol. So when developers starting coding in this class they are alerted that”Method1″ is obsolete & code must be now written in “NewMethod1″. public class Class1 { [Obsolete] public void Method1() { } public void NewMethod1() { } } In the same way if somebody is trying to create objectof “Class1″ he gets an alert in the tool tip as shown in the below code snippet that “Method1″ is obsolete and he must use “NewMethod1″. So in short Attributes are nothing small piece of info which is embedded declaratively in the code itself which developers can see upfront. In case you need to show a lot of message to the developers you can pass the message in the “Obsolete” attribute as shown in the below code snippet. [Obsolete("Please use NewMethod1")] public void Method1() { } If you desire to be bit strict and do not want developers to use that strategy, you can pass ‘true” to the “Obsolete” attribute as shown in the below code. [Obsolete("Please use NewMethod1",true)] public void Method1() { } Now in case developer tries to make a call to “Method1″ they’ll get error & not just a easy warning. The “Obsolete” attribute which we mentioned at the top is a readymade attribute To yield a custom attributes you want to inherit from the attribute class. Below is a uncomplicated “HelpAttribute” which has a “HelpText” property. class HelpAttribute : Attribute { public string HelpText { get; set; } } “HelpAttribute” is applied to the “Client” as shown in the code below. Now developers who see this class , see the details right in the front of their eyes. [Help(HelpText="This is a class")] class Customer { private string CustomerCode; [Help(HelpText = "This really is a property")] public string CustomerCode { get { return CustomerCode; } set { CustomerCode = value; } } [Help(HelpText = "This really is a process")] public void Add() { } } By using the “AttributeUsage” and “AttributeTargets” you can restrict the attribute to a certain section like class , approach , property etc. Beneath is a simple custom attribute is now confined only to methods. [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Approach)] class HelpAttribute : Attribute { public string HelpText { get; set; } } In the event you try to apply the above attribute over a class or property you would get a compile time error as shown beneath. You could also restrict attribute’s to a class , constructor , assembly and so on. Below is the list of possibilities to which you can confine your attribute. 1 use which we’ve outlined till now is for the developer’s that they can see the info while coding & take selection accordingly. Other use is you can read the information programmatically making use of reflection & act on it. I.e. beneath is a custom attribute which describes length of characters for a property of a class. [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Property)] class Check : Attribute { public intMaxLength { get; set; } } Below is a client class over which that property is decorated providing facts that the maximum length of “CustomerCode” property can’t exceed 10 character. class Customer { private string CustomerCode; [Check(MaxLength = 10)] public string CustomerCode { get { return CustomerCode; } set { CustomerCode = value; } } } Below goes the code which will loop dynamically through the attributes of each property and do the length validation check. So the first step is to create the object of the consumer class. Consumer obj = new Customer(); obj.CustomerCode = “12345678901”; 2nd step is to get the “Type” of the object. Due to the fact once we get the kind of the object we can browse properties, procedures etc of the object. Type objtype = obj.GetType(); Use the “Type” object & loop via all properties and attributes of those properties. foreach (PropertyInfo p in objtype.GetProperties()) { foreach (Attribute a in p.GetCustomAttributes(unrealistic)) { } } Once you get hold of the attribute you could do the length check & raise exception accordingly. foreach (PropertyInfo p in objtype.GetProperties()) { foreach (Attribute a in p.GetCustomAttributes(untrue)) { Check c = (Check)a; if (p.Name == “CustomerCode”) { if (obj.CustomerCode.Length > c.MaxLength) { throw new Exception(” Max length troubles “); } } } } Yes, they get inherited in the child classes. We’ve an “Inherited” property in “AttributeUsage” if we set it to wrong those attributes won’t be inherited in the child classes. [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Property,Inherited=false)] class Check : Attribute { publicintMaxLength { get; set; } } If you specify “AllowMultiple” as untrue it may be used a variety of occasions in the same program

[Special Challenge Report] Hot explosions in the cool atmosphere of the Sun

Peter1,*, H. Tian2, W. Curdt1, D. Schmit1, D. Innes1, B. De Pontieu3,seven, J. Lemen3, A. Title3, P. Boerner3, N. Hurlburt3, T. D. Tarbell3, J. P. Wuelser3, Juan Martínez-Sykora3,4, L. Kleint3,4,five, L. Golub2, S. McKillop2, K. K. Reeves2, S. Saar2, P. Testa2, C. Kankelborg6, S. Jaeggli6, M. Carlsson7, V. Hansteen7 1Max Planck Institute for Solar Program Study, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 3Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), 3251 Hanover Street, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. 4Bay Location Environmental Investigation Institute, 596 1st Street West, Sonoma, CA 95476, USA. 5NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305, USA. 6Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Post Office Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. 7Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, School of Oslo, Post Workplace Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo, Norway. ?*Corresponding author. E-mail: peter{at}mps.mpg.de The solar atmosphere was conventionally represented with a logical 1-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere & corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is difficult to identify what is up & down, even in the cool 6000-kelvin photosphere just above the solar surface: This region hosts pockets of hot plasma transiently heated to critically 100,000 kelvin. The energy to heat and accelerate the plasma requires a considerable fraction of the energy from flares, the largest solar disruptions. These IRIS observations not only confirm that the photosphere is more convoluted than conventionally thought, having said that also provide insight into the power conversion in the process of magnetic reconnection